Summary of Grimshaw Immigrations and Details of Individual Grimshaw Immigrants

The Grimshaws in America today, apparently numbering about 2,500, and representing about 14% of the worlds total Grimshawpopulation of about 18,000, are descended from immigrants who started coming to the new World as early as 1651, only 45 years after the founding of Jamestown, Virginia, the first English colony. This page provides a summary of Grimshaw immigration patterns to the U.S.

A tabulation of Grimshaw immigration records is included on another webpage; it includes 60 to 65 different Grimshaw entries. This webpage provides more detailed information on each immigrant presented in that table. Copies of the citations are available if you e-mail me at


Summary of Grimshaw Immigrations to the U.S.

Details of Each Grimshaw Immigrant


Summary of Grimshaw Immigrations to the U.S.

Examination of the tabulation of Grimshaw immigrants shows that the earliest Grimshaw immigrants (the first dozen or so) came during the colonial period and early history of the country and appear in records related to the Virginia and Maryland colonies. They appear as owners (or at least tenants) of land, as an indentured servant (in one case), and as convicts that were deported to Virginia or Maryland. One couple is also recorded as coming to the Georgia colony.

After the Revolutionary War, the immigration pattern changed dramatically and shifted northward, with the majority of records showing connections with New York, particularly as immigrants through the port of New York. Strong connections in Pennsylvania are also indicated, especially in naturalization records.

As noted, if it is assumed that this represents about half of the total that actually arrived in the timeframe covered (1651 to 1880), the full number is well over 100, and could be as high as 130.

Details of Each Grimshaw Immigrant

As noted, the total number of immigrants included in the four sources of immigration surveyed is apparently between 60 and 65, depending on which records are viewed as duplicates (or triplicates or more). Detail is presented below for
52 Grimshaw immigrants as presented in the table on the companion webpage. Each entry below begins with a citation(s) in which the entry appears; all citations are included in the list at the bottom of the page; additional detail on the references is given in a companion webpage.

  1. William Grinshaw, 1651, Virginia

Greer, 1912; Nugent, Nell M., 1934

The earliest Grimshaws in the U.S. are reported in land records for Virginia dating back to the mid-1600s. In order to appreciate the process and conditions for obtaining land in Virginia, a bit of colonial history is in order (Encyclopedia Britannica Online, 2000, various articles):

The original English mainland colonies–Virginia (founded 1607), Plymouth (1620), and Massachusetts Bay (1630)–were founded by joint-stock companies The purposes of the Virginia Company that landed at present-day Jamestown in May 1607 were not only to colonize but also to Christianize, to open new areas for trade, and to guard against further Spanish inroads. Hunger, poor shelter, Indian hostility, and rampant disease plagued the early years, but, while the colony tottered constantly on the brink of dissolution, a tobacco industry was begun by John Rolfe and a representative assembly was convened

The London Company, also called Virginia Company Of London, was a commercial trading company chartered by England’s King James I in April 1606 with the object of colonizing the eastern American coast between latitudes 34 and 41 N. Its shareholders were London men, and it was distinguished from the Plymouth Company, which was chartered at the same time and composed largely of Plymouth men. The London Company quickly (in December 1606) sent out three ships with 120 colonists, led by Capt. John Smith and Bartholomew Gosnold. In May 1607 the colonists reached Virginia and founded Jamestown at the mouth of the James River. After some initial hardships, the colony took root; and the London Company itself was reconstituted on a broader legal basis. It obtained two new charters, one in 1609 and one in 1612, which appropriated to it a great belt of territory 400 miles (640 kilometres) wide extending through the American continent to the Pacific Ocean.

Land was granted in the colonial period of Virginia under what was known as the “headright system,” in which land was granted in return for coming to Virginia, or for transporting others, primarily for colonization. The system is described in Nugent (1934, p. xxiv-xxv):

The term headrights in connection with a patent for land has been subject to no little misunderstanding. Elucidation is therefore in order.

For the purpose of stimulating immigration and the settlement of the Colony the London Company ordained that any person who paid his own way to Virginia should be assigned 50 acres of land “for his owne personal adventure,” and if he transported “at his owne cost” one or more persons he should, for each person whose passage he paid, be awarded fifty acres of land. There is, for instance, the case of Sir Thomas Lunsford, Knight and Baronett, who on October 24, 1650 was granted 3,423 acres for the transportation of sixty-five persons including himself, members of his family, friends, and servants, many of whom were doubtless indentured, or bound for a period of service.

Among the headrights are found persons of all social classes, nobility and gentry, yeomanry, indentured servants (some of good family and connection in England), and negroes. Sea captains were especially active in the acquisition of land through the transportation of settlers, and they not infrequently acted conjointly with London merchants. Before obtaining land for the transportation of “headrights” the claimant was required to present a receipt in proof that the passage money was duly paid. But despite all precautions fraud and deception were by no means uncommon.

William Grimshaw (shown in the record as Grinshaw) was the earliest recorded Grimshaw in the U.S. He appears as an apparent grantee of land in Yorke County under the headright record of one Joseph Croshaw. The earlier reference (Greer, 1912, p. 139) shows the record as follows:

Grimshaw, Wm., 1651, by Joseph Croshaw, Yorke Co.

The later reference (Nugent, 1934, p. 222) provides the following much more complete record:

JOSEPH CROSHAW. 1,000 acs. Yorke Co., 10 Dec. 1651, p. 352. Upon S. side of Yorke Riv., comonly known by the name of the poplar Neck, abutting N.W. upon the mouth of St. Andrews Cr., N.E. upon sd. Riv. & S.E. upon Croshaw Desire Cr., dividing this from land now in possession of Richard Croshaw., S.W. along the Indian field upon land of James Harris & W. by N. upon land of Samuell Snead. Trans. Of 20 pers: Thomas Smith, William Grinshaw, Robt. Burton, William Small, John Mouson (or Monson), Robt. Pead, Edwd. Norman, James Bateman, John Clare, Thomas Cater, Francis Newball, Mary Letts, John Nurte, John Letts, Abra. Armston, John Walker, Isaac Fletcher, James Williams, Eliza. Hendworth.

The second reference (Nugent, 1934) is from the first of a series of Virginia land record references; it covers the period 1623 to 1666. Similar land records also indicate the presence of the next two Grimshaws in the U.S. as shown in the following two sections.

  1. John Greensham or Greenshan, 1653, Virginia

Greer, 1912; Nugent, 1934

John may or may not be a Grimshaw, but he is included here because subsequent census records indicate that there is a good possibility and because he is so “early on the scene” in the U.S. He is indicated in the same two references as William (above) – first Greer (1912, p. 136):

Greenshan, John, 1653, by Mr. Richard Barnhouse, Jr., Gloucester Co.

and then Nugent (1934, p. 276):

MR. RICHARD BARNHOUSE, Jr., 200 acs. Glocester Co., 27 Apr. 1653, p. 193. On S. side of Mattapony Rov., 2 mi. above the Indian ferry, bounded upon land of Capt. Robert Abrahall, Apostique Cr. & Mr. William Wyatt. Trans. Of 4 pers: William Allen, Mary Collier, Robert Yates, John Greenshan.

This John is probably the least certain of the entries in this work of actually being a Grimshaw.

  1. John Grimshaw, 1670, Virginia

Nugent, Nell M., 1977

The record of John Grimshaw is shown in the second reference on early Virginia Land records (Nugent, 1977), which covers the period 1666 to 1695. John is shown as living in 1670 on land near the James River under the headright of William Peble or Pebles,. Two entries of the same record are included in the reference. The first, on page 74, is as follows:

WILLIAM PEBLES. 473 A., 3 R., 24 P., Chas. Citty Co., S. side of James Riv., adj. Mr. Tho. Newhouse, the Burchen Sw. &c; 30 July 1670, p. 289. Trans. Of 10 pers: James Durant, John Minter, Fra. Hawgood., Tho. Tomlinson, James Dent, John Grimshaw, Christo. Brown, Catharin Jenken, Giles Wright, Wll. Landland.

The second entry in the same reference, on page 82, is generally as shown below:

WILLIAM PEBLE. 473 A., 3 R., 24 P., Chas. City Co., S. side James Riv., adj. Mr. Thomas Newhouse, Burchen Swamp, &c; 30 July 1670, p. 317. Trans. Of 10 pers: James Durnat, Jno. Minter, Fra. Hawgood, Tho Thomlyn, James Dent, Jno. Grimshaw, Xpofer. Browne, Katherine Jenkin, Giles Wright, Wm. Langlaid.

  • Eliza. Grimshaw, 1696, Virginia

Nugent, Nell M., abstractor, 1979

Eliza. (abbreviation for Elizabeth?) Grimshaw is shown in the third Virginia land record reference (Nugent, 1979), which covers the period 1695 to 1732. It shows her as living on land near the Pongoteague River in 1696 under the headright of John Washbourne; the entry is approximately as follows (Nugent, 1979, p. 6):

JOHN WASHBOURNE, 644 acs., Nampton Co; S. side of Pongotegue River; adj. Charles Scarburghs 400 acs., purchased by Hugh Yeo, Merchant; on land of Anthony Hoskins; John Robinson; & Nicholas Wadilow; 29 Oct. 1696, p. 34. Said 644 acs. Being added in a patent of 1044 acs. Granted sd. Yeo, 26 Mar. 1664, deserted, & granted sd. Washbourne, for Imp. Of 13 pers: Eliza. Grimshaw, Alice Daniel, Wm. Waterford, Arthur Goaled, Michael Fadler, John James, Phil. Ferne, Jack, Mary, Mary, Sith, Dott, Tom, Negroes.

  • Miles Grimshaw, 1698, Virginia or Maryland

French, Elizabeth, 1913; Tepper, Michael, ed., 1977; Coldham, Peter W., 1990

An indentured servant is a person who signs and is bound by indentures to work for another for a specified time especially in return for payment of travel expenses and maintenance, where an indenture is defined as a contract binding one person (such as an apprentice) to work for another for a given period of time. As noted above in the discussion of the headright system in Virginia, indentured servants sometimes were “of good family and connection in England.”

In two of the references on Miles Grimshaw (French, 1913, p. 10 and Tepper, 1977, p. 180), the following entry is made (the entry is identical in both references):

To mr Nicholas Smith to Virginea Or Maryland WHudson 5 yeares October ye: 13th: 1698

Miles Grimshaw 5 Yeares ditto die. Mary Boardman 5 Yeares ditto die

It indicates that Miles was indentured to Nicholas Smith for 5 years in October 1698 for travel to Virginia or Maryland. The third reference (Coldham, 1990, p. 699) contains the following entry:

13 October. The following apprenticed in Liverpool to serve Nicholas Smith for five years in Virginia or Maryland: William Hudson; Miles Grimshaw; Mary Boardman. (LTB).

It further confirms that Miles Grimshaw came to the U.S. as an indentured servant in 1698. Explanatory text in this reference states that this entry is among records of “some 1500 plantation indentures,” indicating that Miles was most likely sent to a plantation in Maryland or Virginia (Coldham, 1990, p. iv).

  1. John and Judith Grimshaw, 1737, Georgia

Unknown Author, 1970; Coulter, Ellis M., and Albert B. Saye, eds., 1983

John Grimshaw was apparently a soldier who came to Georgia with his wife Judith of their own accord, unlike many Georgia colonists, who were deportees for criminal offenses. The earlier reference for John and Judith (Unknown Author, 1970, p. 10) is as follows:

GRIMSHAW, Judith passengers on ship “Mary Ann” 1737

GRIMSHAW, John ” ” “

The second reference (Coulter and Saye, 1983, p. 77) has the following entry, which includes Judith as the wife of John, but not John:

491. Grimshaw, Judith – W. of Jo. Grim-shaw, Soldr.; embarkd 16 Aug. 1737; arrived 31 Oct. 1737

From these records, it is apparent that John, a soldier, came with his wife, Judith, to Georgia in 1737 on the ship Mary Ann. The following additional information is provided in Coulter and Saye (1983, p. ix-x):

This list of the settlers of Georgia to 1741 is taken from a manuscript volume entitled A List of Persons who went from Europe to Georgia on Their Own Account, or at the Trustees’ Charge, or who Joyned the Colony or were Born in It, Distinguishing Such as Had Grants there or were only Inmates (serial no. 14220), purchased together with twenty other volumes of manuscripts on early Georgia history by the University of Georgia in 1947. The manuscripts, sold at auction by Sotheby’s in London, had formerly constituted a part of the library of Sir Thomas Phillipps, Bt., of Middle Hill, Worcestershire, and Thirlestaine House, Cheltenham, and were reported to have originally belonged to the Earl of Egmont, first President of the Trustees for Establishing the Colony of Georgia in America.

The list of settlers in the Egmont manuscripts is given under two headings: first, those who went from Europe to Georgia at the Trustees’ charge and, second, those who went on their own account. The settlers are listed in roughly alphabetical order, followed by parallel columns with the following headings: age, occupation, date of embarcation, date of arrival, lots in Savannah, lots in Frederica, and “Dead, Quitted, Run Away.” Footnotes give additional information concerning most of the persons listed. The division of the colonists into two lists based upon the payment of their passage has been followed in the present publication, but for convenience in printing, the parallel columns and footnotes have been abandoned and the information concerning each colonist quoted directly after his name.

It is significant that the second entry is in Part II of the reference – “Persons Who Went from Europe on Their Own Account.” Thus, they apparently had not been sent as prisoners to a penal colony.

  1. James Grimshaw, 1739, Virginia

Kaminkow, Marion, and Jack Kaminkow, eds., 1967; Coldham, Peter W., 1974; Coldham, Peter W., 1983; Coldham, Peter W., 1997

James Grimshaw (alias Grimshon), on the other hand, was apparently dispatched to Virginia as a prisoner, the first of five Grimshaw with records of being deported for criminal offense. The first reference (Kaminkow and Kaminkow, 1967) provides the most complete information. The initial entry, on page 69, indicates an internal reference number (61) to another entry, on page 194, which provides a lot more information. The two entries are as follows:

on page 69:


on page 194:

Ref NNo.


Where from

Destination in America

Name of Ship






Forward Gally

and continuing on page 195:

Captains Name

No. of persons

Date received

on board

P.R.O. Ref. No.

Benj. Richardson


Apr. 21, 1739

T 53/39 p. 448

A later reference (Coldham, 1974, p. 115) provides the following: GRIMSON als GRIMSHAW, James S Feb T Apr 1739 Forward to Va And on a separate page that describes the ships:

Ships Name


Approximate Sailing Date


P.R.O. Refs T53 Series


Benjamin Richardson

Apr 1739



The third reference (Coldham, 1983, p.74) contains identical information to the above. The fourth reference contains the following similar information but in a somewhat different format (Coldham, 1997, p. 82):

Felons transported from London to Virginia by the Forward, Capt. Benjamin Richardson, in April 1729. (PRO: T53/39/448).

Middlesex Grimson alias Grimshaw, James

James was, in summary, deported to Virginia from Newgate (a prison) on April 21, 1739. The ship he traveled in was the “Forward Galley,” commanded by Captain Benjamin Harrison, with a total of 27 on board. None of the references provide information on the nature of the crime committed by James or any other detail. However, the first reference provides a good general description of the felon immigrants in the introduction (Kaminkow and Kaminkow, p. vii-xiv), including the following:

Although it is a well-known fact that many felons were sent over to the American Colonies by the British Government prior to 1775, and many treatises have been written on the subject, it has usually been dismissed as not being an important factor in the peopling of the country. Few have recognized that the transportees were real individuals who had names, who came over on ships of which we know the names and the names of their captains; that we know who was the agent who saw that they were safely confined on board and who collected a sum of money from the government for doing so, and a substantial sum from the planters who wished to avail themselves of this cheap source of labor by buying the transported felons.

Opinions among writers differ widely as to the character and usefulness of these men and women, many of whom were convicted of such petty thefts as to excite our pity rather than our condemnation. When we read that Dorothy Manning was tried at the Old Bailey in May, 1740 for stealing twenty three pence, and William Webling in July for stealing a cloth coat, value two shillings, and all were sentenced to transportation for seven years, we wonder to what extremities they were driven that they needed to steal such insignificant items as a period when the retribution of the law was so fierce.

  • John Grimshaw, 1745 or 1755, America

Coldham, Peter W., 1983; Coldham, Peter W., 1988

The information on John, an unwilling immigrant like James before him, is consistent in the two references that include him (Coldham, 1983, p. 74):

Grimshaw, John. S for highway robbery at Sedgley Summer 1744 R 14 yrs Lent 1745 St.

(and Coldham, 1988, p. 339):

Grimshaw, John. S Summer 1744 R 14 yrs Lent 1755 for highway robbery at Sedgeley.

He apparently was sentenced for highway robbery at Sedgeley in 1744, probably to be transported to the American colonies for seven years. He was apparently then reprieved, on condition of transportation to the colonies for 14 years, on the occasion of Lent, 1745 (the 1755 reprieve date in the second reference is undoubtedly a misprint.) The author of the second reference also provides interesting general information on convicts that were transported to the American colonies (Coldham, 1988, p. ix-xii):

Between 1614 and 1775 some 50,000 Englishmen were sentenced by legal process to be transported to the American colonies. With notably few exceptions their names and the record of their trial have survived in public records together with much other information which enables us to plot the story of their unhappy and unwilling passage to America.

The scheme introduced in 1718 was, administratively, a great success. Justices in London and in each county were appointed to contract with merchants and ships captains to arrange the shipment to Virginia or Maryland of convicted felons and to guarantee their safe delivery. Most such contracts required the ships captain to obtain a certificate of landing from the customs officer at the port of disembarcation. London and Middlesex provided well over half of all transported felons, all of them housed in the infamous Newgate Prison before being embarked at St. Katherines Dock in one or other of the ships which regularly plied this or the black slave trade to the southern colonies. Such ships were specially equipped to provide the maximum secure accommodation and attracted crews who were well drilled in dealing with potentially dangerous passengers.

Such a large and specialized business as convict transportation became the exclusive province of those who were equipped and organised to run it. From 1718 to 1742 the “Contractor for the Transports” for London, Middlesex, and much of the country beyond, was Jonathan Forward, a prosperous tobacco merchant and a man well connected in the criminal fraternity. He was succeeded by one of his associates, Andrew Reid, against whom it was alleged that “every species of complaint was made.” Reid held the post until 1763 when he was replaced by John Stewart who died in 1771. After that date no single contractor was appointed and merchants competed for contracts to transport felons at their own expense. There is little doubt that the business, though risky, could be immensely profitable, and accounts survive showing that a ship load of felons, if delivered “well-conditioned,” could be auctioned for L10 to L20 each, or the equivalent in tobacco to be carried back to England in the same ships.

The outbreak of the Revolutionary War in 1775 brought to an end a trade in human cargoes which had been plied successfully and profitably for well over 150 years, and it was not until 1787 that the transportation of convicts from English gaols was re-started, this time to the Australian colonies.

This commentary seems to suggest that John, like James before him, was imprisoned at Newgate before his unwilling departure for America. The infamous Andrew Reid was probably in charge at the time.

  1. Thomas Grimshaw, 1759, America

Coldham, Peter W., 1988

Very little specific information is provided on Thomas, another convict sentenced to somewhere in the colonies in 1759 (Coldham, 1988, p 339):

Grimshaw, Thomas of Manchester. SQS Apr 1759. La.

He was from Manchester; the SQS indicated he was “sentenced to transportation at Quarter Sessions.” The La. indicates that the sentencing occurred in Lancashire County. Like William and John before him, he may have been imprisoned at Newgate pending his transport (probably for a period of seven years) to the colonies.

  1. Job Grimshaw (Grinshaw), 1761-1764, Maryland

Cox, Richard J., 1981; Coldham, Peter W., 1983; Coldham, Peter W., 1988; Coldham, Peter W., 1997

Job, another convict sentenced to deportation to the American colonies, seems to be one of the best documented Grimshaw immigrants in the published record, as he is included in no fewer than four references. The earliest reference is the most interesting, as it provides information on Job as a runaway after he arrived in America (Cox, 1981, p. 5):

Grimshaw, Job. Reported as a runaway 29 March 1764 to 26 April 1764, MG. Baltimore County. William Isgrig and John Jones. The advertisement states that he has “a Bag of Tinkers Tools and its Supposed will pass for a Tinker.”

Two of the other references document his sentencing to the colonies (Coldham, 1983, p. 48):

Grimshaw, Job. S. March 1761

(and Coldham, 1988, p. 339):

Grimshaw, Job. S Mar 1761 Ha.

The “Ha.” indicates that he was sentenced in Hampshire County, England. The fourth reference (Coldham, 1997, p. 279) is as follows:

FELON RUNAWAYS 1734 – 1788

Grimshaw, Job, 40, 52″, tinker. From John Jones. BA Co Md (MG 29 Mar – 26 Apr 1764. PAG 8 Apr 1764).

Jobs sentencing probably was for a period of 7 years in the American colonies. If it occurred in 1761, he would have been transported in a similar timeframe (and circumstances) as Thomas in 1759. He was reported as a runaway tinker three years later, in 1764, in Baltimore County, Maryland.

  1. Edmund Grimshaw, 1766 or 1767, America or Maryland

Cox, Richard J., 1981; Coldham, Peter W., 1988; Coldham, Peter W., 1997

Edmund was apparently the last Grimshaw to come to America as a prisoner and deportee, bringing the total to five. The second reference (Coldham, 1988, p. 339) records Edmunds sentencing at Quarter Sessions in April 1766, probably for seven years to the colonies:

Grimshaw, Edmund of Old Accrington, cotton weaver. SQS Apr 1766. La.

The “La.” indicates his sentencing occurred in Lancashire County.

The earlier reference (Cox, 1981, p. 55) provides a record of Edmunds report as a runaway a year later in April 1767 (and again in June 1767):

Grimsahw (sic), Edmund. Reported as a runaway 30 April 1767 and 18 June 1767 to 9 July 1767 supplement, MG. Northampton furnace, Baltimore County. Charles Ridgely, Sr. and Company. Lancashire, England. About 21 years. Weaver and tailor. Ran with John Hardy and Thomas Mahoney in April. Ran with John Hardy in June. The April advertisement states that he “has been in the Country 8 or 9 Months.”

The third reference (Coldham, 1997, p. 265) is as follows:

FELON RUNAWAYS 1734 – 1788

Grimshaw, Edmund, from Lancashire, 21, 59″, weaver, in country 9 months. From Chas Ridgely, BA Co Md. (MG 30 Apr & 18 Jun – 9 Jly 1767, PAG 13 Aug 1767).

All of these references note Edmunds occupation as a weaver, which was a very typical skill in Lancashire during the 1700s. As noted in Section 2, Clayton-le-Moors, where the original Grimshaw family lived from about 1350 until the male heirs ran out in about 1715, was very heavily involved in the early industrial development of Lancashire County, with primary emphasis on textiles. The industrial history of Clayton-le-Moors is well described by Rothwell (1979) and includes the following summary of the textile industry:

As in the neighbouring towns of Accrington, Church, Rishton and Great Harwood, cotton manufacture was the pre-eminent industrial trade of Clayton-le-Moors, providing employment for a large percentage of the townships population. The primary site was Oakenshaw Calico Printworks, initially commenced by Peel, Yates & Company, but later associated with Richard Fort and Brothers. This company, through one of its partners, John Mercer, made a significant contribution to the nineteenth century textile industry and bequeathed to the trade the important process of mercerisation.

Canal Mill, Enfield, an impressive spinning and weaving factory built in 1835, was a noteworthy event in the introduction of the cotton industry to Clayton-le-Moors, but the real growth of the town came between 1851 and 1865 when Joseph Barnes actively encouraged the foundation of mills and factories on the Oakenshaw estate.

The final stages of the industrys development came in the years just before 1914 when two large weaving sheds were erected in the town. Claytons cotton trade suffered alarmingly after 1920 and by 1935 only three mills remained in production. Spinning ceased entirely during 1933 and cotton weaving became extinct in 1960.

According to this reference, no fewer than 16 textile-related sites have been identified in Clayton-le-Moors. Although Edmunds connection to the original Grimshaw family is unknown, his cotton weaver occupation as was certainly commonplace in Lancashire in the 1700s.

  1. Isaac Grimshaw, 1805, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

Tepper, Michael, general editor, and Elizabeth P. Bentley, transcriber, 1986

The pattern of Grimshaw immigrations changed drastically starting with the next immigrant. After 1800, the immigrants came primarily through the ports of New York and Philadelphia, unlike the earlier ones who came principally to the “southern colonies.”

Isaac is the first of three Grimshaws who are recorded in this reference as arriving at the Port of Philadelphia based on lists of baggage kept by the Port. The record indicates that Isaac arrived on the ship “Sally” on March 22, 1805 (Tepper, 1986, p. 278):

GRIMSHAW, Isaac Sally 22 Mar 1805

The author makes several observations on the Philadelphia baggage list records, their origin, and their uniqueness (Tepper, 1986, p. vii-xiv):

Until the year 1820 federal records of immigration were virtually non-existent, with the curious exception of the “baggage lists” which were maintained by officials of the port of Philadelphia from 1800 to 1820. A small number of records developed at other levels of government or outside of public authority are known to exist for portions of the 1800-1820 period. Of all the known records of immigration for this period, however, only the Philadelphia baggage lists exist in any significant quantity or make any claim to continuity.

Although they are sometimes confused with Customs Passenger Lists (lists of passengers kept at various ports of entry after 1820 as a result of legislation approved in March 1819 regulating conditions on passenger vessels), baggage lists are an entirely different type of passenger record, owing their origin in fact to an earlier and rather unlikely piece of legislation, the Act to Regulate the Collection of Duties on Imports and Tonnage, approved 2 March 1799.

Unlike Customs Passenger lists, which are an outgrowth of legislation framed for the purpose of placing controls on immigration, baggage lists originated from an act that had no bearing on immigration other than the benign intention to exempt in-coming passengers from paying duty on their personal belongings. Section 23, the comparatively obscure but key section of the act of 2 March 1799, instructed ships captains to draw up cargo manifests with the names of passengers carrying baggage, directing them to

have on board a manifest, or manifests, in writing, signed by such master or other persontogether with the name or names of the several passengers on board the said ship or vessel, distinguishing whether cabin or steerage passengers, or both, with their baggage, specifying the number and description of packages belonging to each respectively.

Having briefly considered the statutory basis for the creation of the baggage lists, it must now be confessed that Philadelphia was virtually alone in complying with the law, for with the exception of a small number of baggage lists found among the records of the New Orleans customs district – spotty lists for 1813 and 1815 – and the district of Alexandria, Virginia (more haphazard even than New Orleans), no other port of entry on the Atlantic or the Gulf appears to have maintained the specific type of records called for in section 23 of the lengthy and complex act of 2 March 1799. Nor was Philadelphias compliance with the law random or equivocal, judging by the fact that port officials collected baggage lists from as many as twenty ships in the somewhat early period of October to December 1799, and thereafter collected lists from an average of 238 ships per year for the twenty years from January 1800 to December 1819.

Whatever the reasons for their existence, the Philadelphia baggage lists are not only unique but also very singular in character Typically no more than a handful of passengers are named in each list, although longer lists of fifteen or twenty passengers are found, and there are even a few manifests containing as many as two hundred names. Nevertheless, with approximately 40,000 passengers recorded in the 4,767 ship lists for the twenty years from 1800 through 1819, an average of between eight and nine passengers per list gives perhaps a better idea of their range.

Two other Grimshaws, both named Hugh, are also included in these records but arrived somewhat later and are discussed in subsequent sections.

This Isaac Grimshaw is described on a companionwebpage.

  1. Samuel Grimshaw, 1805, Virginia

Scott, Kenneth, compiler, 1979;

Samuel Grimshaw also arrived in the U.S. in 1805, as indicated in another source of immigrant information, the records of British aliens who were living in the U.S. during the War of 1812 and were required to register as resident aliens. The following information is provided in the reference (Scott, 1979, p. 324):

Grimshaw, Samuel, age 30, in U.S. since Sept. 1795, Henrico Co., farmer, (5-12 Sept. 1812)

Samuel apparently registered in September 1812 while living in Henrico County, Virginia at age 30 as a farmer. No family is indicated, but it seems unlikely he was a descendant of earlier Virginian immigrants; he would have probably been born in the U.S. and therefore not an alien.

This reference includes records of registrations from 21 states in the U.S. Four Grimshaws are included – Samuel from Virginia, and Isaac, John and Joseph from New York. The last three are described in subsequent sections of this report. The following background information is provided in the reference (Scott, 1979, p. v-vi):

The recording of ships passenger lists was not required by law until 1819, and prior to that date only scattered lists of immigrants exist. It is, therefore, of the greatest importance that another source can supply information concerning thousands of British subjects – Canadian, English, Irish, Scottish, Welsh, and West Indian, most of them immigrants – who were residing in the United States during the War of 1812. On June 1, 1812, President Madison sent his war message to Congress, which on June 18 declared war. Subjects of Great Britain were henceforth enemy aliens and were to be dealt with in accordance with an act of July 6, 1798, and a supplementary Act of July 6, 1812.

Accordingly, notice was promptly given that all British subjects in the United States were to report to the marshall of the state or territory of their residence “the persons composing their families, the places of their residence and their occupations or pursuits; and whether, and at what time, they have made the application to the courts required by law, as preparation to their naturalization.” It was ordered that notice was to be published in the newspapers and that reports by the aliens were to be sent by the several marshals to the Department of State.

The returns, long in the custody of that department, were many years ago deposited in the National Archives.

Normally a return gave the name of the alien, aged fourteen or more, years of residence in the United States, number of persons in the family, place of residence and status. Happily many returns supply further data of no little genealogical value – country of origin, for example.

  • Wm. Grimshaw, 1808, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

Filby, P. William, ed., 1982

William was the earliest of six Grimshaws to be recorded in this important reference on naturalization records for Philadelphia which describes itself as follows (Filby, 1982, p. xii):

Philadelphia Naturalization Records (PNR)

is an index to the names of more than 113 aliens from nearly 100 countries who applied for U.S. citizenship through the Philadelphia courts system from 1789 to 1880. The present index is a completely reset edition of . An eleven-volume index compiled about 1940 by the Work Projects Administration under the sponsorship of the Pennsylvania Historical Commission. The original WPA volume is generally considered to be one of the most important documents in the American naturalization and immigration archive, for, by writing to the court(s) of record listed for an alien, the researcher can receive a copy of the actual court record which typically contains such prime genealogical information as place and possibly date of birth, date and place of arrival in the United States, place of embarkation, last foreign address, country of former allegiance, current residence, and a physical description. The new PNR contains all of the information in the original WPA work in one convenient volume.

The PNR record for William is as follows (Filby, 1982, p.198):

Grimshaw, Wm.




Indicating that his Country of Former Allegiance was England and that he appeared before the Quarter Sessions (QS) Court on September 23, 1808. The appearance may have been for declaration of intention to become a citizen or for becoming naturalized. The naturalization process was described in the reference (Filby, 1982, p. ix-x):

A Brief Discussion of Citizenship Applications in the United States

The process of becoming a U.S. citizen is a lengthy one, and the information required at the various stages makes citizenship and naturalization records important documents to the genealogical researcher. First, the applicant needed to make a declaration of intention to become a citizen. Although the data required varied from jurisdiction to jurisdiction, the declaration form usually contained the applicants name, age, place and possibly date of birth, allegiance, and date of declaration. Before 1866, declarations also included the date and place of arrival in the United States and place of embarkation. After 1866, the form usually gave a physical description (complexion, height, weight, color of eyes, identifying marks), current place of residence, last foreign address, name of ship, and port and date of entry.

Having filed the declaration, the applicant usually had a minimum two-year wait before naturalization; however, the laws pertaining to naturalization changed from time to time. From 1790 to 1795, the requirement for free, white aliens was residence of one year in a state and two in the United States. In 1795, the requirement was changed to a residency of five years in the United States. From 1798 to 1802, the requirement was fourteen-year residency in the United States and the declaration of intention had to be filed five years prior to naturalization. In 1802 the laws were again changed to one years residence in a state and five in the United States, with the declaration filed three years prior to naturalization. Except for a few minor changes, the five-year residency requirement remains to this day.

  • Hugh Grimshaw, 1811, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

Tepper, Michael, general editor, and Elizabeth P. Bentley, transcriber, 1986

Hugh was the second Grimshaw recorded as arriving at the Port of Philadelphia based on baggage lists (Isaac was the first; see Section 4.11). The record appears in the reference (Tepper and Bentley, p. 278) as follows:


Little George Eyre

20 Dec 1811

It indicates that Hugh arrived at the port on the ship “Little George Eyre” on December 20, 1811.

  1. Isaac Grimshaw, 1812, New York

Scott, Kenneth, compiler, 1979

Isaac, like Samuel Grimshaw from Virginia (see Section 4.12), registered as a British alien during the War of 1812. His entry in the reference (Scott, 1979, p. 123) appears as follows:

Grimshaw, Isaac, age 40, 7 years in U.S., wife & 2 children, NYC, teacher, applied 3 or 4 years ago (28 Sept. – 3 Oct. 1812); 5 ft. 9 in., age 41, brown complex., dark hair, grey eyes, White St., teacher (Navy)

This record indicates that Isaac actually entered the U.S. in about 1805 (the same timeframe as Samuel, as described above) rather than 1812. He was married, had two children, and lived on White Street in New York City. He was 41 years old and worked as a school teacher. The term “Navy” indicates that his record was taken in New York City by the U.S. Navy.

This Isaac Grimshaw is described on a companionwebpage.

  1. John Grimshaw, 1812, New York

Scott, Kenneth, compiler, 1979

John was another Grimshaw (the third) who registered during the War of 1812 as a British alien, with the following record included in the reference (Scott, 1979, p. 123):

Grimshaw, John, age 48, 10 years in U.S., wife & 6 children, Washington, Dutchess Co., woolen manufacturer (12-17 Oct. 1812)

John lived upstate in New York, in Dutchess County, and was married with 6 children. He was 48 and worked in the woolen manufacturing business. It appears that he may have been an earlier immigrant – arriving in about 1802 – than the other Grimshaws who registered as British aliens.

  1. Joseph Grimshaw, 1812, New York

Scott, Kenneth, compiler, 1979

The fourth Grimshaw to register as a British alien in the War of 1812 was Joseph, who was a clothier in Oneida County in upstate New York (Scott, 1979, p. 124):

Gumshaw (or Grimshaw?), Joseph, age 49, 6 years in U.S., 12 in family, Oneida Co., clothier (3-8Aug. 1812)

He apparently arrived in the U.S. in about 1806. He was 49 and had a large family of 12.

It is interesting to note that Joseph, and John in the preceding entry (Section 4.16), both have a textile connection in their professions (clothier, woolen manufacturing) as was so common to immigrants from Lancashire County and nearby areas of England (as noted above in Section 4.10). The author (Scott, 1979, p. vi) notes the following:

.This material [the records] is not only of value for genealogical research. It is clearly of importance for economic and social history. For example, the great number of weavers, spinners, carders and makers of cotton machines throw light on the rapid growth of the cloth industry, notably in Rhode Island, New Jersey and sections of New York. Many British subjects were engaged in the gunpowder business, in Delaware particularly.

  • Hugh Grimshaw, 1812, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

Tepper, Michael, general editor, and Elizabeth P. Bentley, transcriber, 1986

This Hugh is no doubt related to the Hugh Grimshaw who arrived just seven months earlier (shown in Section 4.14). His record is as follows in the reference (Tepper and Bentley, p. 278):



24 Jul 1812

It indicates that he arrived at the Port of Philadelphia on the ship “Fox” on July 24, 1812

  1. Hugh Grimshaw, 1813, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

Filby, P. William, ed., 1982

This Hugh was the second Grimshaw, after William (see Section 4.13), to appear before a court in Philadelphia for naturalization purposes. His record appears as follows in the reference (Filby, 1982, p. 198):

Grimshaw, Hugh




Like William, Hugh appeared before the Quarter Sessions (QS) court, either to declare his intention of becoming a citizen or to become naturalized. The date was April 21, 1818; his Country of Former Allegiance was England. It seems highly likely that this Hugh is the same as one of the Hugh Grimshaws that were recorded as immigrants earlier, in 1811 and 1812 (see #15, 19, and 20 above).

  1. William Grimshaw, 1820, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

Filby, P. William, ed., 1982

William, the third Grimshaw to appear before a Philadelphia court for purposes of naturalization, is recorded as follows in the reference (Filby, 1982, p. 198):

Grimshaw, William




Williams Country of Former Allegiance was “Great Britain and Ireland,” and he appeared before the Court of Common Pleas (CP) on June 3, 1820.

  1. John Grimshaw, 1820, New York

Samuelsen, W. David, 1986; Bentley, Elizabeth P., 1999

The first reference for this John Grimshaw is quite sparse, indicating only arrivals based on New York City Port Passenger Manifests. The lists included were compiled during the period 1820 to 1824; Johns record appears as follows in the reference (Samuelson, 1986, p. 108):





This entry indicates that John arrived from Liverpool on November 3, 1820 on the 317th ship to arrive in the Port of New York during that year.

The second reference that presents passenger lists for the Port of New York includes a lot more information on the John Grimshaw who arrived on November 3, 1820. The reference includes nine items of information, including name, age, sex, occupation, “country to which they belong”, “country they intend to inhabit”, ship, and date of arrival. The record for John appears as follows (Bentley, 1999, p. 507):






Great Britain

Great Britain


3 Nov 1820

This record shows that John was a 20-year-old merchant from Great Britain who arrived on the ship “Nestor” on November 3, 1820. Whether he remained as an immigrant or was only a visitor is problematic, however, as the second “Great Britain” entry indicates that he intended to inhabit that country, not the United States.

This reference covers the period 1820 to 1829 and includes four more entries of Grimshaws, which are described in the following four sections. The author provides the following information about the passenger lists:

The National Archives has preserved the passenger lists of over 6,000 ships, which brought more than 85,000 individuals to New York City from 1820 through 1829. This, unfortunately, does not represent all the ships that arrived. Those months which are wholly without surviving lists are noted and one can only assume that some smaller, undetected gaps exist in other months as well. The volume of arrivals seems to follow a seasonal pattern, so the chart showing the number of ships arriving in each month compared to the whole year and to the same month of the previous year may be of some use in determining whether a given month has fewer arrivals than would seem normal. The growing volume of arrivals over the years is an indication of both increasing traffic and increasing compliance with the new law requiring submission of passenger lists.

The ship that carried the largest number of passengers during this period was the Marchioness, which arrived May 13, 1828 from Liverpool. Some interesting passengers in these records are General Lafayette and his son, George Washington Lafayette, on the Cadmus, arriving in New York from Havre on August 17, 1824, presumably when the General visited the states to celebrate the 50th anniversary of the Revolution. Jerome Napoleon Bonaparte, son of Jerome Bonaparte, brother of Napoleon I, and Betsy Patterson of Baltimore, is enumerated in 1827. And in 1829, Henry Longfellow, a merchant, is listed as aged 22, which is compatible with his being the American poet, Henry Wadsworth Longfellow (1827-1882).

Clearly, these Grimshaw immigrants were traveling with distinguished company when they arrived at the Port of New York.

  1. James Grimshaw, 1827, New York

Bentley, Elizabeth P., 1999

The record for James Grimshaw is shown as follows in the same reference on arrivals at the Port of New York (Bentley, 1999, p. 507):






Great Britain



13 Jan 1827

James, a merchant of age 26, arrived on the ship “Pacific” on January 13, 1827 with the intent of remaining in America.

  1. Mr. Jas. Grimshaw, 1827, New York

Bentley, Elizabeth P., 1999

James Grimshaw also arrived in 1827, on December 8 (Bentley, 1999, p. 507):


Jas., Mr.







8 Dec 1827

He was a 30-year-old merchant who arrived on the ship “Manchester” with the intent to return to England as his permanent home, so he may not have been an immigrant (as was the case for John in 1820, according to the same reference).

  1. Wm. Grimshaw, 1827, New York

Bentley, Elizabeth P., 1999

William arrived later in the same year, on July 2, 1827, according to the same reference (Bentley, 1999, p. 507):






Great Britain

United States


2 Jul 1827

He was a 21-year-old farmer who arrived on the ship “Meridian” with the intent to remain in the U.S.

  1. Thomas and Mary (and Child Betsey) Grimshaw, 1829, New York

Bentley, Elizabeth P., 1999

Thomas and his (apparent) wife, Mary, arrived two years later, on August 4, 1929 (Bentley, 1999, p. 507):









Aug 1829









Aug 1829









Aug 1829

He was a 25-year-old currier (leather tanner or horse groomer), and she was 23. They arrived on the “Helen” with their 2-year-old child, Betsey. No indication is given on whether they intended to remain in the U.S. permanently.

  1. George Grimshaw, 1829, Mississippi

U.S. Work Projects Administration, Division of Community Service Programs, Old Law Naturalization Records Project, 1942

The record for George Grimshaw appears as follows in a table entitled “Completed Naturalizations Second District” in the reference:












Grimshaw, George






Min Cir Ct






George Grimshaw’s completed naturalization occurred on April 15, 1829 by order of the Min. Circuit Court of Hinds County, Mississippi. The record, in Volume 1, page 390 of the court records was documented as part of a Works Projects Administration (WPA) project in 1942.

George Grimshaw is described in a companionwebpage.

  1. Phillip Grimsha, 1831, New York

Myers, Mrs. Lester F., 1968

The record for Phillip is quite sparse (Myers, 1968, p. 21):

GRIMSHA, Phillip


I — N


Phillip was apparently a New York resident who was also an immigrant, as indicated by the fact that he was recorded in the “I—N” (Immigration Naturalization) pages that were indexed by the reference. Additional research would be required to obtain more detail on his immigration to the U.S. A dual page-numbering system (indicated by the numbers 128 and 21) is used in the index. The entry in the original reference is as follows:

GRIMSHA. Phillip, a native of the Isle of Man, Great Britain, declared his intention of becoming a citizen on June 10, 1831 in Court of Common Pleas, at Oswego, N.Y. He was a resident of Scriba. He took the Oath of Allegiance in Cayuga Co., Oct. 27, 1841. Witnesses, G.W. Foster and Ams Underwood declared that he had complied with the 5 year and 1 year residence requirements.

Philip Grimshaw is described in a companionwebpage.

  1. Samuel Grimshaw, 1835, New York

Scott, Kenneth, and Roseanne Conway, compilers, 1978

The record of Samuel Grimshaw as an immigrant occurred because he made a deposition as an alien intending to become naturalized. This record appears as follows in the reference (Scott and Conway, 1978, p. 46):

GRIMSHAW Samuel, of NYC, merchant – 25 Apr. 1835

The record indicates that Samuel was a merchant and was an alien resident living in New York City when he made his deposition on April 25, 1835. The deposition was made so that he could hold land, even though he was an alien resident, because of his plans to become naturalized. Background on the process is provided in the reference (Scott and Conway, 1978, p. iii-iv):

In the Colonial Period and alien who came to England or one of the English colonies could neither hold nor bequeath real property; if he acquired such, it escheated to the Crown upon his demise. Naturally, many aliens in New York sought to obtain the right to hold, dispose of, inherit and bequeath land. This privilege might be secured in England by denization granted by the king or by naturalization through an act of Parliament, while in New York it might be obtained by an act of the Provincial Assembly or, only up to 1700, by denization granted by the governor.

After the Revolution the real estate of a resident alien escheated to the State of New York instead of to the Crown upon his demise, and he had no right to acquire, hold, convey, inherit or bequeath land except by the act of the legislature. To deal with this problem the New York Legislature, on April 21, 1825, passed “An Act to enable resident Aliens to take and hold Real Estate and for other purposes.” In brief, the Act required an alien to make deposition that “he is a resident in, and intends always to reside in the United States, and to become a citizen thereof as soon as he can be naturalized; and that he has taken such incipient measures as the laws of the United States require, to enable him to obtain naturalization”.

By the Act of 1825, the aliens deposition must be filed in a book or books in the office of the Secretary of State of New York. A fee of fifty cents was allowed for the recording. The Act provided that, if after six years the alien had not been naturalized or was not then a resident of the United States, his lands should be vested in the people of New York as though the law had not been made

This Samuel could potentially (but likely?) be the same as the 30-year-old Samuel living in Virginia in 1805 (see Section 4.12), now 65 years old and having changed his profession from farmer to merchant and moving to New York City, but never having gotten naturalized.

  1. Thomas Grimshaw, 1837, New York

Mitchell, Brian, 1989

The record of Thomas is different from the information on other Grimshaws coming to the U.S. because it is the only one taken as a record of emigration from his homeland in Ireland. These records are tabulated with the following information: name, age, year left, townland, destination, trade and religion.

The record for Thomas appears as follows in the reference (Mitchell, 1989, p. 19):

County: Antrim

Parish: Carnmoney





New York

Printer Proprietor


Thomas was a 24-year-old Presbyterian printer proprietor who left his home in Whitehouse in 1835 bound for New York. Whitehouse is in the Parish of Carnmoney, which is in the County of Antrim. The author provides the following information on these emigration lists:

The Ordnance Survey was founded in 1791 owing to the threat of an invasion from France during the Napoleonic Wars. The military need for an accurate map of southern England, at the scale of 1″ to 1 mile, resulted in the first sheet, covering part of Kent, appearing in 1801.

With the end of the war in 1815 the practical value of maps based on very exact measurement, within a framework of control points known as triangulation stations, was widely appreciated, and this resulted in the survey being extended to cover the whole of Britain.

In Ireland, as a prelude to a nationwide valuation of land and buildings (the so-called Griffiths Valuation), the Ordnance Survey was directed to map the whole country at a scale of 6″ to 1 mile. The resultant 6″ maps, in effect a record of Irelands 60,462 townlands, appeared between 1835 and 1846. In the Griffiths Valuation, carried out between 1848 and 1864, every townland was identified against the appropriate Ordnance Survey sheet number.

It was originally intended to accompany each map with written topographical descriptions, or memoirs, for every civil parish. But only one memoir, for the Parish of Templemore, County Londonderry, had been published when the idea was abandoned in 1840.

The field officers did, however, gather much historical, geographical, economic and social information for many parishes in their notebooks. The original notes and manuscripts can now be found in fifty-two boxes in the Royal Irish Academy in Dublin. They cover nineteen of Irelands counties.

The memoirs for Counties Antrim and Londonderry are unique in that for many of their parishes lists of emigrants for a few years in the mid to late 1830s were compiled. As emigration records these lists are unparalleled. At the American end the so-called customs passenger lists, which record the arrival of all immigrants from 1820, provide only two clues relating to the origin of the emigrants – the port of departure of the ship and the nationality of the passenger. As a means of identifying the Irish homeland of an ancestor these lists have limitations. By contrast, the lists in the Ordnance Survey memoirs identify both the destination of the emigrant and his place of origin in Ireland – the primary objective of any American tracing his Irish ancestry. In addition, the age, townland address, year of emigration, and religious denomination are given for each emigrant named in the memoir. The usefulness of this information is self-evident. With an age and a religious denomination, for example, it should be possible to identify the baptism entry of an ancestor.

  • George Grimsahaw, 1840, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

Filby, P. William, ed., 1982

George Grimshaw (misspelled Grimsahaw in the records) was the fourth Grimshaw to appear before a Philadelphia court to become naturalized. His record appears in the reference (Filby 1982, p. 198) as follows:

Grimsahaw, George





George, whose Country of Former Allegiance was England appeared before the Court of Common Pleas (CP) twice, first on August 30, 1840 and again on October 22, 1844. One is tempted to conclude that the first appearance was to declare his intention to become a citizen, and the second was to become naturalized, since the required three years had elapsed between the two dates.

  1. John Grimsham, 1842, New York

Bracy, Isabel, 1990

John Grimsham (presumably a misspelling of Grimshaw) was recorded in 1855 as an immigrant living in Madison County, NY; the record is shown as follows in the reference (Bracy, 1990, p. 66):

GRIMSHAW, John – Madison 1842, England, Farmer

John was evidently a farmer from England who immigrated in 1842 and was living Madison Township of the county with the same name. The reference provides the following information on immigrants to the county (Bracey, 1990, p. 7):

Between 1815 and 1860, a million and a half Germans crossed the Atlantic to become adopted Americans. Many changed or Anglicized their names upon arrival.

More than two million Irish newcomers debarked in United States ports prior to 1860, many of them “famine emigrants” from the Great Potato Famine of the 1840s.

In 1855, there were 355 single, foreign born males between the ages of 18 and 25 in the town of Sullivan – many of these men never married – perhaps because of the lack of foreign born women in the area in any age group. In those days, there were few marriages between the foreign born men and native born women. Illegitimacy was relatively low. Most children were born in wedlock even if the parents were not married when the child was conceived. Was there resentment against so many people arriving in Madison County (especially in the towns of Eaton and Sullivan) during the years 1850-1855? Lets take a look at the events of the times during this period, examine the records, and then sum up how well and why our people mixed together so well.

The reference then provides more detail on conditions in the county in 1850, including the Erie Canal, employment newspapers, agriculture, home remedies and several other topics.

  1. Sinking of the Immigrant Ship “Caleb Grimshaw” in 1849

Laxton, Edward, 1996

The next 16 Grimshaw immigrants are reported as arriving in the U.S. during the timeframe of the Irish Potato Famine of 1846 to 1851. The ships that transported the Irish emigrants, and the famine that “drove” the immigration, are described by Laxton (1996, p. 1-3):

The only encouragement we hold out to strangers are a good climate, fertile soil, wholesome air and water, Plenty of Provisions, good pay for labor, kind neighbors, good laws, a free government and a hearty welcome.

These words were spoken by Benjamin Franklin, who did so much to promote the American cause of independence, a hundred years before the Famine Emigration. But they held true for a million and more citizens of Ireland, the men, women and children who sailed to America between 1846 and 1851, so that they might escape the Famine and survive. For as little as US $10, a passenger could sail 3,000 miles across the Atlantic Ocean, a voyage of fear, hunger, sickness, misery … and hope. But a million more would die at home, from starvation and fever, after the failure of the potato crop in successive seasons.

Were those voyagers alive today, what stories they could tell, of the agonizing decision to leave their beloved Isle of Erin, of the lamentations on their last night at home and the American Wake, as it came to be known, of the arduous journey to the port and the search for a ship, of the misery they endured on the voyage! But what joy when they arrived, what relief they must have savoured as they stepped ashore! They were released from tyranny, no longer tormented tenants. Free at last, they could start to live again.

In fact emigration from Ireland to America had begun in the early 1700s. A trickle swelled to an average of 5,000 a year by 1830 and grew steadily until the Famine arrived and the exodus began, 150 years ago. The emigrants sailed to New York and Boston, to Philadelphia, Baltimore and New Orleans, and they spread across America’s heartland. They sailed to Canada, a British colony to which the passage was cheaper, from where an estimated 200,000 immediately went south across the border.

Before the Famine the population of America had risen to around 23 million. The Statue of Liberty, with its famous welcome for immigrants, was not yet built – Ellis Island was many years away. But the Irish looked upon America as their natural choice and by 1850 the residents of New York were 29 per cent Irish.

Seven million are believed to have left Ireland for America over the last three centuries. For a million, over a period of six years, there was no option. Now more than 40 million American citizens can claim Irish blood.

While books on the Famine period have dealt with the journey, no publication has dealt specifically with the Irish-owned ships, the Irish crews who sailed them, the Irish ports they sailed from and the Irish passengers they carried in those years.

The ships featured in this book made these crossings on the dates shown, at the times stated; passenger lists are from US Immigration files, crew’s papers for the specific voyages from marine archives, and a wealth of first-hand reports have contributed to the stories. Details have been taken from eyewitness accounts; original Certificates of Registration, paintings and contemporary lithograph drawings have been reproduced.

Among the ships described by Laxton was the “Caleb Grimshaw,” which had the misfortune of catching fire and sinking in 1849, with the loss of 90 of the 425 passengers being transported from Liverpool to New York. An excerpt from Laxtons book describing this sad event is included in Appendix F.

  1. Bing Grimshaw, 1848, New York, New York

Glazier, Ira A., ed., and Michael Tepper, assoc. ed., 1983-1986

As noted in Section 2.2, one of the most significant references, in terms of the number of Grimshaws documented as immigrants (potential total of 15) was not included in the Filby list. It is a list of immigrants who entered through the Port on New York during the period January 1846 to December 1851 (Glazier and Tepper, 1983-86). The Grimshaw immigrants are described in the next several sections together when they arrived on the same ship and on the same date. All of these Grimshaws arrived from Liverpool, England, which was common practice even for immigrants from Ireland, many of whom went to Liverpool for their departure for the New World. The record for the first two Grimshaws, Bing and William, is nearly identical. The record for Bing appears as follows in this reference (Glazier and Tepper, v. 2, 1983, p. 490):

Under the Heading: Milan, 13 June1848, from Liverpool






This record indicates that both Bing was a 45-year-old laborer who arrived on the ship “Milan” from Liverpool on June 13, 1848. The authors offer the following as background information on the immigrants who arrived during the 1846- 1851 timeframe:

The blight that struck the Irish potato crop during the winter of 1845-46 brought ruin to tens of thousands of tenant farmers and rural laborers and reduced almost all of Ireland to poverty. Dependent on the potato not only as the staple of his diet but as a means of barter and paying rent, the Irish peasant was forever at the mercy of his crop; yet accustomed as he was to the natural cycles of bounty and dearth, nothing could have prepared him for the calamity of the Great Potato Famine. When the blight struck it brought total destruction to the primitive agrarian economy of the island. There was no means of counteracting it, no known chemical agent that could retard it; nor was there an alternative crop that could be quickly sown and harvested.

At the time – despite the abolition of the vicious Penal Laws – very few Irish farmers owned their own land or held title to their cottages and cabins, and when the crop failed they had no means whatever of satisfying their remorseless landlords or the hated “gombeen man,” the ubiquitous money lender. Rents and obligations soon fell into arrears, and before long there were wholesale evictions throughout the length and breadth of Ireland. Thousands of families were thrown on the meager resources of local jurisdictions or roamed the countryside in desperate search of food. For many of these wretched cottiers – homeless now and without any means of sustenance, in dread of the hunger which claimed the lives of a million of their countrymen – the choice was painfully clear: quit Ireland or perish. Of necessity, therefore, hundreds of thousands chose t leave, and during the epochal period from 1846 to 1851 more than a million men, women, and children immigrated to the United States and Canada, mostly through the port of New York>

Who they were precisely, who they came with, and when they arrived are questions of the utmost importance to demographers, social historians, and genealogists. Happily, answers to these questions can be found in an invaluable series of port arrival records known as Customs Passenger Lists.

  • William Grimshaw, 1848, New York, New York

Glazier, Ira A., ed., and Michael Tepper, assoc. ed., 1983-1986

The record for William is almost identical to that of Bing (Glazier and Tepper, v. 2, 1983, p. 490):

Under the Heading: Milan, 13 June1848, from Liverpool

GRIMSHAW, William.





William was another 45-year-old laborer who arrived on the ship “Milan” from Liverpool on June 13, 1848.

  1. Thos. Grimshaw, 1848, New York, New York

Glazier, Ira A., ed., and Michael Tepper, assoc. ed., 1983-1986

After Bing and William, the next immigrant through the port of New York was Thomas, who arrived later in 1848. The record appears as follows (Glazier and Tepper, v. 3, 1984, p. 249):

Under the Heading: Enterprise, 31 October 1848, from Liverpool






Thomas, a 50-year-old laborer, arrived on the ship “Enterprise” on October 31.

  1. Joseph Grimshaw, 1848, New York, New York

Glazier, Ira A., ed., and Michael Tepper, assoc. ed., 1983-1986

Joseph arrived just a few days later at the New York port; the record appears as follows (Glazier and Tepper, v. 3, 1984, p. 297):

Under the Heading: Columbia, 13 November 1848, from Liverpool






Joseph was an 18-year-old laborer who arrived on November 13 on the ship “Columbia.”

  1. Joseph Grimshaw, 1849, New York, New York

Cassaday, Michael, 1982

Joseph, like the Grimshaws reported above in Glazier and Tepper, apparently arrived in New York, but he is not included in that reference. His record appears as follows (Cassaday, 1982, p. 9):


Arrived New York 30 April 1849 from Liverpool. Thomas F. Freeman, Master





Passenger No






He was thus a 30-year-old farmer who arrived as passenger number 80 on the ship “Marmion” in New York on April 30, 1849. He apparently eventually moved to Wisconsin. No other detail is provided in the reference.

There were apparently some “holes” in the passenger lists reported in Glazier and Tepper, since Joseph was not included. Either he arrived at a different port in New York than New York City, or he fell into one of those holes. The following information is provided by Glazier and Tepper on the preparation of the passenger lists:

When legislation was enacted in March of 1819 regulating passenger ships arriving at American ports, hardly anyone in Congress could have foreseen the magnitude of immigration to the United States a quarter-century later. In 1820, for instance, the first year in which official passenger lists were kept, roughly 10,000 passengers arrived at Atlantic and Gulf Coast ports from abroad; but by 1846, the first year of the Irish Potato Famine, the number of arrivals at the port of New York alone reached nearly 100,000, and at the same port, just five years later, the number swelled to 300,000.

Still the law passed in 1819 was farsighted if not visionary. While it did not foresee the vast migrations of the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, it almost certainly paved the way, for it had as its object the safety and well-being of incoming passengers, regardless of their number.

Throughout the century legislation was enacted which modified the regulatory powers of the 1819 act, in some cases providing for specific allocations of space for each passenger or changing the proportions to one passenger for every two tons of burden, .

By a happy stroke, one of the provisions of the act which remained intact throughout the century was that requiring masters of vessels arriving at American ports from abroad to submit a list of passengers to the collector of the customs district in which the ship arrived. Ships captains were required to submit lists designating the name, age, and occupation of all passengers, the name of the country to which they belonged and the name of the country of which they intended becoming inhabitants.

During the period of heaviest emigration from Ireland the task of preparing the passenger lists seems to have fallen to the passenger brokers. The calling of the roll, a ceremony often performed while the emigrant ship was being towed into the wind, was undertaken by the passenger brokers clerk from the rail above the quarter-deck. From this elevation he was able to verify the passenger list and at the same time have the passengers pass in review before the watchful eyes of the ships medical officer.

With the large number of ships and passengers arriving during this timeframe, it would perhaps be surprising if there were not gaps in the passenger list records.

  1. George Grimshaw, 1849, New York, New York

Glazier, Ira A., ed., and Michael Tepper, assoc. ed., 1983-1986

George, like the other Grimshaws recorded as coming through the port of New York in the 1846 to 1851 timeframe, arrived from Liverpool. The record appears as follows (Glazier and Tepper, v. 4, 1984, p. 25):

Under the Heading: Elsinor, 5 April 1849, from Liverpool






He was a 30-year-old laborer who arrived on the “Elsinor” on April 5, 1849.

  1. Sarah Grimshaw, 1850, New York, New York

Glazier, Ira A., ed., and Michael Tepper, assoc. ed., 1983-1986

Sarah arrived at the port of New York the next year; the record appears as follows (Glazier and Tepper, v. 5, 1985, p. 387):

Under the Heading: Empire-State, 18 May 1850, from Liverpool






She was a 70-year-old farmer who arrived on the Empire-State on May 18, 1850.

  1. Mary and Margaret Grimshaw, 1850, New York, New York

Glazier, Ira A., ed., and Michael Tepper, assoc. ed., 1983-1986

Mary and Margaret arrived later in 1850; their record appears as follows (Glazier and Tepper, v. 6, 1985, p. 178):

Under the Heading: Manhattan, 19 August 1850, from Liverpool






GRIMSHAW, Margaret





They were both 20-year-old servants who arrived on August 19, 1850 on the “Manhattan.”

  1. W. Grimshaw and Family, 1850, New York, New York

Glazier, Ira A., ed., and Michael Tepper, assoc. ed., 1983-1986

Mr. and Mrs. William Grimshaw and their family were the last 1850 arrivals through the port of New York. Their record appears as follows (Glazier and Tepper, v. 6, 1985, p. 284):

Under the Heading: Constellation, 2 October 1850, from Liverpool


























They were farmers, ages 52 and 50, respectively, who arrived on October 2, 1850 on the “Constellation” with their daughters Martha (age 16), Emma (age 12), and Ellen (age 10).

  1. Martgt. Grimshaw and Infant Child, 1851, New York, New York

Glazier, Ira A., ed., and Michael Tepper, assoc. ed., 1983-1986

Martgt. (presumably intended to be an abbreviation for “Margaret”) is the last of the Grimshaw immigrants through the port of New York that was included in this series. Her record appears as follows (Glazier and Tepper, v. 7, 1986, p. 466):

Under the Heading: Manhattan, 30 July 1851, from Liverpool











She is shown as a 20-year-old servant arriving with an infant on the “Manhattan” on July 30, 1851. Given the similarities to the Margaret shown coming with Mary on the same ship on August 19 of the previous year (see Section 4.40), one is tempted to speculate that she may be the same person and may have returned to England and then came back to the U.S. on the same ship as in the year before, but this time with an infant. There is an age discrepancy (only a year), unless her birthday was between July 30 and August 19.

  1. Henry Grimshaw, 1852, New Orleans, Louisiana

Glazier, Ira A., ed., and P. William Filby, 1988+

Henry is one of two Grimshaws who immigrated in 1852 and who are reported in a reference whose primary focus was on immigrants from Germany (Glazier and Filby, 1988-1990; see Section 2.3). Henrys record appears as follows (Glazier and Filby, v. 2, 1983, p. 427):




ARRIVED: 21 MAY 1852





Province, Village








Henry was a 31-year-old painter who arrived on May 21, 1852 at New Orleans from London on the ship “John Currier.” His origin is indicated as “unknown”, but he was no doubt from somewhere in England, since he departed from London.

Although the focus of this reference is on immigrants from Germany, entries from other countries are recorded as well, including Henry (and James, in the next record). The reference provides the following background information (Glazier and Filby, v. 2, 1983, p. vii-xiii):

Germans to America provides both the historian and the genealogist with an extensive data base of German immigrants who came to the United States from 1850 through 1855. This data base derives from the original ship manifest schedules.[that] were filed by all vessels entering U.S. ports in accordance with the act of Congress of 1819. The listscontain a minimum of 80 percent German surnames.

Bremen and Hamburg served as the primary German ports of embarkation throughout the nineteenth century, but French ports, such as Le Havre, and Antwerp and Rotterdam, in the Low Countries, were also major points of departure The most important ports of arrival in the United States were New York, from which the immigrants dispersed via Albany and Troy throughout the western part of the country, and Baltimore and New Orleans, from which they reached the Mississippi. Philadelphia and Boston were of minor importance

  • James Grimshan, 1852, New York, New York

Glazier, Ira A., ed., and P. William Filby, 1988+

The second Grimshaw to arrive in 1852 was James Grimshan (apparently mis-spelled in the original records); his record appears as follows (Glazier and Filby, v. 4, 1984, p. 57):









Province, Village








James was a 25-year-old hatter who arrived in New York from London on the ship “Patrick Henry” on September 30, 1852. He originated in Great Britain.

  1. Benjamin Grimshaw, 1857, Erie County, Pennsylvania

Erie County Society for Genealogical Research, compiler, 1983

Benjamin is the first of three Grimshaws whose immigration to the U.S. is recorded in the naturalization records of Erie County, New York. His record appears as follows (Erie County Society for Genealogical Research, 1983, p. 49):

GRIMSHAW, Benjamin – b 1828; em 1857; Eng, Yorkshire; cert 5 Oct 1868; res North East; sp J. C. GRAY (3248)

This record indicates that Benjamin was born in 1828 and emigrated from Yorkshire, England in 1857. He resided in North East Township of Erie County and received his naturalization certificate on October 5, 1868; his sponsor was J.C. Gray. The other two Grimshaws whose immigration is similarly recorded are John and Craven, whose records are described below.

The following background information is provided in the reference:

Erie County, Pa. was formed by an act of the State Legislature in 1800, five years after the first settlers arrived. Due to the sparse population, the county government was not actually organized until 1803, when the county seat was established at Erie On March 23, 1823, the county courthouse burned, destroying all of the contents. The first naturalization recorded after the fire was that of John Robison in 1825. Approximately 11,000 individuals were naturalized in the Erie County Court of Common Pleas up to 1906, when the Federal Government took over the naturalization process. Another 1,000 filed their intentions but did not complete the naturalization process.

Benjamin Grimshaw is described on a companionwebpage.

  • John Grimshaw, 1857, Illinois

Shelley, Jane and Elsie M., Wasser, compilers, 1983

The naturalization for John Grimshaw appears as follows in the reference:


Nat’l Date




Grimshw, John

Apr 1860




As indicated in the records of the Circuit Clerk’s office in Alton, Madison, County, John made his Declaration of Intent for naturalization in 1857 and was successful in becoming naturalized in April, 1860. Both events are included on the same page of the clerk’s office records.

  1. Henry Grimshaw, 1860, Kane County, Illinois

Kane County Genealogical Society, 1988

Henry Grimshaws immigration is recorded in his naturalization records in Kane County, Illinois; the record appears as follows (Kane County Genealogical Society, 1988, p. 49):





Henry was born in 1816 and received his final naturalization papers in 1860. No date is given for his immigration to the U.S. The 75-233 indicates the book and page number of the court record containing the entry. The following information is provided as background in the reference (Kane County Genealogical Society, 1988, front matter):

Naturalization Records at the Kane County Circuit Court

At one time four courts in Kane County handled naturalizations with each court keeping its own set of records. In 1965 all records were called into the Circuit Court office at Geneva, the county seat. The Elgin City Court, the Aurora City Court and the Kane County Circuit Court records begin in the late 1850s and end in 1954. The Kane County Court in Geneva operated from 1872-1906.

Prior to the establishment of the Bureau of Immigration and Naturalization in 1906, the record information varied from court to court and in most cases was very sketchy. The Declaration of Intention indicated that the alien wanted to become a citizen of the United States and the Final Paper acknowledged that the alien had been accepted for citizenship. The book contains an abbreviated form of these records.

  • John W. Grimshaw, 1864, Erie County, Illinois

Erie County Society for Genealogical Research, compiler, 1983

Johns immigration was recorded in the Erie County records described above (see Section 4.45); his record appears as follows (Erie County Society for Genealogical Research, 1983, p. 49):

GRIMSHAW, John W. – b 1834; em 1864; Eng, Yorkshire; cert 28 Aug 1876; res North East Tp; sp James BANNISTER (4243)

John was born in 1834 and emigrated from Yorkshire, England in 1864. Like Benjamin, he resided in North East Township. He received his naturalization certificate on August 28, 1876; his sponsor was James Bannister.

John Grimshaw is described on a companionwebpage.

  1. John Grimshaw, 1866, Iowa

Appanoose County Genealogy Society, 1985

The record of John’s naturalization in the Appanoose County Clerk of Court at Centerville, Iowa appears as follows:




Grimshaw, John



No other information is provided in the reference, the Filby33 record containing this reference indicates that John’s Naturalization occurred in 1866.

  1. Giblum Grimsahw, 1870, Pennsylvania

Filby, P. William, ed., 1982

Giblum was the fifth Grimshaw to appear before a Philadelphia court to become naturalized; his record appears as follows in the reference (Filby, 1982, p. 198):





His Country of Former Allegiance was England, and he appeared before the Quarter Session Court on October 10, 1870.

  1. Craven Grimshaw, 1873, Erie County, Pennsylvania

Erie County Society for Genealogical Research, compiler, 1983

Craven was the third Grimshaw whose immigration was recorded in the Erie County, New York records; his information appears as follows (Erie County Society for Genealogical Research, 1983, p. 49):

GRIMSHAW, Craven – b 1853; em 1873; Eng, Yorkshire; cert 2 Oct 1886; res North East Tp 18 yrs; sp W. V. DEWEY (5695)

He was born in 1853 and emigrated in 1873 from Yorkshire, England. He, like the other two Grimshaws in the records, resided in North East Township. His naturalization certificate was issued on October 2, 1886; W.F. Dewey was his sponsor.

Craven Grimshaw is described on a companionwebpage.

  1. William Grimshaw, 1880, Pennsylvania

Filby, P. William, ed., 1982

This William, a minor, was the sixth Grimshaw to appear before a Philadelphia court for naturalization. He made his appearance on September 7, 1880 according to the reference (Filby 1982, p. 198):

Grimshaw, William (mnr).




Williams Country of Former Allegiance was Scotland; he appeared before the Court of Common Pleas.

William was the latest immigrant found in the records surveyed for this website.

References Cited

The references cited in the above descriptions are from four commonly used sources of information on immigrants to the U.S. were surveyed for Grimshaw entries — Bentley, Filby (multiple volumes), Glazier and Filby, and Glazier and Tepper (multiple volumes). The citations, which are referenced in the table above, are shown below.

Filby, in turn indexes many other references, also as indicated in the table above. These Filby references, as well as the Bentley, Glazier and Filby, and Glazier and Tepper references, are included below and are described in more detail on another webpage.

The references cited above are given below in alphabetical order.

  1. Appanoose County Genealogy Society, 1985, Index to Naturalization Records of Appanoose County, Iowa: Centerville, IA, the society, 86 p. (p. 21)
  2. Author Unknown, 1967, Passenger Arrivals, 1819-1820, “A Transcript of the List of Passengers Who Arrived in the United States from the 1st October 1819 to the 30th September 1820: 342 p.
  3. Author Unknown, 1969, Passengers Who Arrived in the United States, September 1821 – December 1823: 425 p.
  4. Bentley, Elizabeth P., 1999, Passenger Arrivals at the Port of New York, 1820-1829, from Customs Passenger Lists: Baltimore, MD, Genealogical Publishing Co., 1491p. (p. 507)
  5. Bracy, Isabel, 1990, Immigrants in Madison County, New York, 1815-1860: Interlaken, NY, Heart of the Lakes Publishing, 120 p. [Filby No. 752.50], p. 66
  6. Harrison (Books), 1185 p.
  7. Cassaday, Michael, 1982, Wisconsin-Bound Passengers on Ship Marmion, in Wisconsin State Genealogical Society News Letter, v. 29, no. 1 (June 1982), p. 9 [Filby No. 1133.60]
  8. Coldham, Peter W., 1974, English Convicts in Colonial America, Volume 1, Middlesex 1617-1775: New Orleans, LA, Polyanthos [Filby No. 1222], p. 115
  9. Coldham, Peter W., 1980, American Loyalist Claims, Volume I: Washington D.C., National Genealogical Society, 616 p.
  10. Coldham, Peter W., 1983, Bonded Passengers to America, Two Volumes in One: Baltimore, MD, Genealogical Publishing Co., unk. p. [Filby No. 1217.2], p. 115
  11. Coldham, Peter W., 1983, Bonded Passengers to America, Volume 5, Western Circuit, 1664-1775: Cornwall, Devon, Dorset, Hampshire, Somerset, and Wiltshire, with a List of the Rebels of 1685: Baltimore, MD, Genealogical Publishing Co., 95 p. [Filby No. 1217.5], p. 48
  12. Coldham, Peter W., 1983, Bonded Passengers to America, Volume 6, Oxford Circuit, 1663-1775: Berkshire, Gloucestershire, Herefordshire, Monmouthshire, Oxfordshire, Shropshire, Staffordshire, and Worcestershire: Baltimore, MD, Genealogical Publishing Co., 95 p. [Filby No. 1217.6], p. 74
  13. Coldham, Peter W., 1987, The Complete Book of Emigrants, 1607-1660, a Comprehensive Listing of English Public Records of Those Who Took Ship to the Americas for Political, Religious, and Economic Reasons; of Those Who Were Deported for Vagrancy, Roguery, or Non-Conformity; and of Those Who Were Sold to Labour in the New Colonies: Baltimore, MD, Genealogical Publishing Co., 600 p.
  14. Coldham, Peter W., 1988, The Complete Book of Emigrants in Bondage, 1614-1775: Baltimore, MD, Genealogical Publishing Co., p 1-461. [Filby No. 1220.11], p. 339
  15. Coldham, Peter W., 1990, The Complete Book of Emigrants, 1661-1699: Baltimore, MD, Genealogical Publishing Co., 894 p. [Filby No. 1219.5], p. 699
  16. Coldham, Peter W., 1992, The Complete Book of Emigrants, 1700-1750, a Comprehensive Listing of English Public Records of Those Who Took Ship to the Americas for Political, Religious, and Economic Reasons; of Those Who Were Deported for Vagrancy, Roguery, or Non-Conformity; and of Those Who Were Sold to Labour in the New Colonies: Baltimore, MD, Genealogical Publishing Co., 743 p.
  17. Coldham, Peter W., 1993, The Complete Book of Emigrants, 1751-1776, a Comprehensive Listing of English Public Records of Those Who Took Ship to the Americas for Political, Religious, and Economic Reasons; of Those Who Were Deported for Vagrancy, Roguery, or Non-Conformity; and of Those Who Were Sold to Labour in the New Colonies: Baltimore, MD, Genealogical Publishing Co., 349 p.
  18. Coldham, Peter W., 1997, The Kings Passengers to Maryland and Virginia: Westminister, MD, Family Line Publications, 450 p. (p. 279)
  19. Coulter, Ellis M., and Albert B. Saye, eds., 1983, A List of the Early Settlers of Georgia: Baltimore, MD, Genealogical Publishing Co., 111 p. [Filby No. 1322], p. 77
  20. Cox, Richard J., 1981, Maryland Runaway Convict Servants, 1745-1780, in National Genealogical Society Quarterly, v. 69, no., 1 (March 1981), p. 51-58 [Filby No. 1357.2], p. 55
  21. Encyclopedia Britannica Online, 2000, various articles.
  22. Erie County Society for Genealogical Research, compiler, 1983, Erie County, Pennsylvania, Naturalizations, 1825-1906: Erie, PA, the society, 179 p. [Filby No. 1869], p. 49
  23. Filby, P. William, ed., 1981, Passenger and Immigration Lists Index – a Guide to Published Arrival Records of about 500,000 Passengers Who Came to the United States in the Seventeenth, Eighteenth, and Nineteenth Centuries: Detroit, MI, Gale Research Co., Volume 1, A-G, 787 p.
  24. Filby, P. William, ed., 1982, Philadelphia Naturalization Records – an Index to Records of Aliens Declarations of Intention and/or Oaths of Allegiance, 1789-1880: Detroit, MI, Gale Research Co., 716 p. [Filby No. 9296], p. 198
  25. Filby, P. William, ed., 1983, Passenger and Immigration Lists Index – a Guide to Published Arrival Records of about 500,000 Passengers Who Came to the United States in the Seventeenth, Eighteenth, and Nineteenth Centuries: Detroit, MI, Gale Research Co., 1982 Supplement, Containing Over 200,000 Additional Records, 950 p.
  26. Filby, P. William, ed., 1984, Passenger and Immigration Lists Index – a Guide to Published Arrival Records of about 500,000 Passengers Who Came to the United States in the Seventeenth, Eighteenth, and Nineteenth Centuries: Detroit, MI, Gale Research Co., 1983 Supplement, Containing 200,000 Additional Records, 982 p.
  27. Filby, P. William, ed., 1985, Passenger and Immigration Lists Index – a Guide to Published Arrival Records of about 500,000 Passengers Who Came to the United States in the Seventeenth, Eighteenth, and Nineteenth Centuries: Detroit, MI, Gale Research Co., 1984 Supplement, Containing More Than 125,000 Additional Records, 616 p.
  28. Filby, P. William, ed., 1987, Passenger and Immigration Lists Index – a Guide to Published Arrival Records of about 500,000 Passengers Who Came to the United States in the Seventeenth, Eighteenth, and Nineteenth Centuries: Detroit, MI, Gale Research Co., 1987 Supplement, Containing More Than 125,000 Additional Records, 645 p.
  29. Filby, P. William, ed., 1988, Passenger and Immigration Lists Index – a Guide to Published Arrival Records of about 5,000,000 Passengers Who Came to the United States in the Seventeenth, Eighteenth, and Nineteenth Centuries: Detroit, MI, Gale Research Co., 1988 Supplement, Containing More Than 125,000 Additional Records, 644 p.
  30. Filby, P. William, ed., 1990, Passenger and Immigration Lists Index – a Guide to Published Arrival Records of about 1,775,000 Passengers Who Came to the United States in the Seventeenth, Eighteenth, and Nineteenth Centuries: Detroit, MI, Gale Research Co., 1990 Supplement, 660 p.
  31. Filby, P. William, ed., 1993, Passenger and Immigration Lists Index – a Guide to Published Arrival Records of about 2,156,000 Passengers Who Came to the United States in the Seventeenth, Eighteenth, and Nineteenth Centuries: Detroit, MI, Gale Research Co., 1993 Supplement, 614 p.
  32. Filby, P. William, ed., 1995, Passenger and Immigration Lists Index – a Guide to Published Arrival Records of about 2,410,000 Passengers Who Came to the United States in the Seventeenth, Eighteenth, and Nineteenth Centuries: Detroit, MI, Gale Research Co., 1995 Supplement, 526 p.
  33. Filby, P. William, ed., 1996, Passenger and Immigration Lists Index – a Guide to Published Arrival Records of about 2,540,000 Passengers Who Came to the United States in the Seventeenth, Eighteenth, and Nineteenth Centuries: Detroit, MI, Gale Research Co., 1996 Supplement, 559 p.
  34. Filby, P. William, ed., 1997, Passenger and Immigration Lists Index – a Guide to Published Arrival Records of about 2,795,000 Passengers Who Came to the United States in the Seventeenth, Eighteenth, and Nineteenth Centuries: Detroit, MI, Gale Research Co., 1998 Supplement, Part 1, 577 p.
  35. Filby, P. William, ed., 1998, Passenger and Immigration Lists Index – a Guide to Published Arrival Records of about 2,923,000 Passengers Who Came to the United States in the Seventeenth, Eighteenth, and Nineteenth Centuries: Detroit, MI, Gale Research Co., 1998 Supplement, Part 2, 533 p.
  36. Filby, P. William, ed., 1998, Passenger and Immigration Lists Index – a Guide to Published Arrival Records of about 3,049,000 Passengers Who Came to the United States in the Seventeenth, Eighteenth, and Nineteenth Centuries: Detroit, MI, Gale Research Co., 1999 Supplement, Part 1, 547 p.
  37. Filby, P. William, ed., 1999, Passenger and Immigration Lists Index – a Guide to Published Arrival Records of about 3,429,000 Passengers Who Came to the United States in the Seventeenth, Eighteenth, and Nineteenth Centuries: Detroit, MI, Gale Research Co., 2000 Supplement, Part 2, unk p.
  38. Fothergill, Gerald, 1976, Emigrants from England, 1773-1776: Baltimore, MD, Genealogical Publ. Co., 206 p.
  39. French, Elizabeth, 1913, List of Emigrants to America from Liverpool, 1697-1707: Boston, MA, New England Genealogical Society, 55 p. (reprinted 1962, 1983 by Genealogical Publishing Co., Baltimore, MD [Filby No. 2212], p. 10
  40. Glazier, Ira A., ed., and Michael Tepper, assoc. ed., 1983-1986, The Famine Immigrants – Lists of Irish Immigrants Arriving at the Port of New York, 1846-1851, in 7 volumes: Baltimore, MD, Genealogical Publishing Co.: Vol. 7, 1986, April 1851 – December 1851, 1195 p. (p. 466)
  41. Glazier, Ira A., ed., and P. William Filby, 1988-1990, Germans to America – Lists of Passengers Arriving at U.S. Ports, 1850-1863: Wilmington, DE, Scholarly Resources, Inc.:
  42. Greer, George C., 1912, Early Virginia Immigrants, 1623-1666: Richmond, VA, W.C. Hill Printing Co. 376 p. (Reprinted 1960, Baltimore, MD, Genealogical Publishing Co.) [Filby No. 2772] , p. 139
  43. Hudgins, Denis, 1994, Cavaliers and Pioneers – Abstracts of Virginia Land Patents and Grants, Volume Four: 1732-1741: Richmond, VA, Virginia Genealogical Society, 355 p.
  44. Hudgins, Denis, 1994, Cavaliers and Pioneers – Abstracts of Virginia Land Patents and Grants, Volume Five: 1741-1749: Richmond, VA, Virginia Genealogical Society, 477 p.
  45. Kaminkow, Marion, and Jack Kaminkow, eds., 1967, Original Lists of Emigrants in Bondage from London to the American Colonies, 1717-1744: Baltimore, MD, Magna Carta Book Co., 211 p. [Filby No. 3700], (p. 69)
  46. Kane County Genealogical Society, 1988, Kane County, Illinois Naturalization Records, 1857-1906: Geneva, IL, the society, 163 p. [Filby No. 3703.1], p.49
  47. Laxton, Edward, 1996, The Famine Ships – The Irish Exodus to America: New York, Henry Holt, 250 p.
  48. Mitchell, Brian, 1989, Irish Emigration Lists, 1833-1839: Lists of Emigrants Extracted from Ordnance Survey Memoirs for Counties Londonderry and Antrim: Baltimore, MD, Genealogical Publishing Co., 118 p. [Filby No. 5704.1], p. 19
  49. Myers, Mrs. Lester F., 1968, Declarations of Intention and Naturalization Papers at the County Clerk’s Office in Auburn, New York, in Tree Talks, v. 8, no. 3 (September 1968), p. 21-22 [Filby No. 5962], p. 21
  50. Nugent, Nell M., 1977, Cavaliers and Pioneers: Abstracts of Virginia Land Patents and Grants, Volume 2, 1666-1695: Richmond, VA, Virginia State Library, 609 p [Filby No. 6221], p. 74, 82
  51. Nugent, Nell M., abstractor, 1934, Cavaliers and Pioneers: Abstracts of Virginia Land Patents and Grants, Volume 2, 1623-1666: Richmond, VA, Dietz Printing Co., unk p. (reprinted 1969, Genealogical Publishing Co., Baltimore, MD [Filby No. 6220], p. 222
  52. Nugent, Nell M., abstractor, 1979, Cavaliers and Pioneers: Abstracts of Virginia Land Patents and Grants, Volume 3, 1695-1732: Richmond, VA, Virginia State Library, 578 p [Filby No. 6223], p. 6
  53. Rothwell, Michael, 1979, Industrial Heritage – A Guide to the Industrial Archaeology of Clayton-le-Moors: Hyndburn Local History Society, Printed by Caxton Printing, Accrington, 18 p.+
  54. Samuelsen, W. David, 1986, New York City Passenger List Manifests Index, 1820-1824: North Salt Lake, UT, Accelerated Indexing Systems International, 290 p. [Filby No. 7870], (p. 108)
  55. Scott, Kenneth, compiler, 1979, British Aliens in the United States During the War of 1812: Baltimore, MD, Genealogical Publishing Co., 423 p. [Filby No. 8195], p. 123, 124, 324
  56. Shelley, Jane and Elsie M., Wasser, compilers, 1983, Naturalization and Intentions of Madison County, Illinois: An Index 1816-1900: Edwardsville, IL, the compilers, unk p. [Filby No. 8368], p. 51
  57. Tepper, Michael H., and Elizabeth P. Bentley, 1982, Passenger Arrivals at the Prot of Baltimore, 1820-1834, from Customs Passenger Lists: Baltimore, MD, Genealogical Publ. Co., 768 p.
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Webpage History

Webpage posted August 2000. Upgraded October 2005 with final reference entry (#49 by Myers for Phillip Grimsha).